Astronotus
Amazon basin and Parana. Length - up to 30 cm. the body is oval, strongly compressed from the sides. Thick soft skin seems velvety. On the brownish background scattered black…

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Labyrinth fish: gourami, cockerels, macropods
The body of the gourami is very much flattened on the sides, high. The fins on the abdomen are long and filamentous, the anal fin is long, the dorsal fin…

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Argues
Karpoed has the form of a flat rounded translucent turtle gray-green with four pairs of feathery swimming legs. In the initial stage, the crustacean is barely visible to the naked…

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Labyrinth fish. General characteristic

Who are labyrinth fish and why are they so called? This name was given to them for the so-called “labyrinth” of passages pierced by blood vessels, which is located on top of their Gill arches. This system of channels was obtained by fish as a result of evolution. The thing is that the homeland of the labyrinth is a wetland and rice fields of Southeast Asia. Initially, the fish were forced to live in dirty, muddy reservoirs, almost without oxygen, which provoked the appearance of such a unique organ. With its help, individuals of some species are able to live without water for up to 8 hours. However, the condition for this is constant access to atmospheric oxygen.

It is due to its unpretentiousness to oxygen labyrinth fish have gained great popularity among novice aquarists. After all, they do not need to buy large and expensive aquariums, install compressors for air supply. These fish can quite normally live in small volumes. Cockerels, for example, quite normally exist even in a glass. The main thing – periodically change the water and feed your pet.

Contents of labyrinth fish
Since labyrinth initially live in, to put it mildly, not very good conditions, then in the aquarium they can not create ideal conditions. Most of them do not need a large volume, do not need a compressor for aeration, do not need a powerful filter. Even the chemical parameters of water are not so important. The only prerequisite for them is the constant maintenance of the temperature regime in the range of 23-26 degrees Celsius.

It is desirable for labyrinth fish to fill the bottom with dark gravel, the aquarium itself is densely planted with living plants. It is desirable to make sure that the aquarium did not get duckweed or other floating plants. They can completely tighten the surface of the water and prevent the fish from gaining oxygen if necessary.

Reproduction of labyrinthine
Males and females of these species are quite different from each other. Usually, males have a larger size, brighter colored, have beautiful and large tails or fins. Females are almost always smaller than males, little noticeable. It is often even difficult to say that these are representatives of one species of fish.

In order to stimulate the instinct of reproduction in labyrinth fish, it is enough to plant a female and several males in a separate aquarium of a small size. The aquarium should be densely planted with plants, you can artificial. This is done in order to fish was where to hide.
The temperature of the water in the aquarium is increased to 28 degrees, and in parallel add a little fresh water.

Then begins the most interesting-courtship of males for females. This is a very beautiful process that is simply fascinating. Males swim around the female, squirming and rubbing their sides, hugging her. After courtship, there is the building of a house for the fry. It is like a cloud of foam in which the males carefully place the eggs after they have been swept by the female. After that, it is desirable to plant the female, she will no longer take part in the birth of offspring. The males will keep an eye on the eggs and fry until they eat on their own.

Fry should be fed with dust from dried Daphnia, infusoria and other small forages.

Types of labyrinth fish
1. Fighting fish or Cockerel (Betta Splendens)

Betta is probably the most popular fish of the family labyrinthine. Cockerels are very quarrelsome character, because of what quite a long time they were used in tournaments in Southeast Asia.

The first mention of Betta fish was noticed in 1800 in Thailand. Now bred dozens of varieties of roosters of different shapes and colors. Globally, they can be divided depending on the shape of the fins and tail into: Royal cockerels, Delta-tailed, round-tailed, Crescent-tailed, crown-tailed, double-tailed, poster, flag-tailed, veil-tailed, brush-tailed.

Sexually Mature cockerels become already in 3-4 months. Breeding conditions are similar to all labyrinthine.

Character males, what differentiates it from other bettas, gouramis, is the aggressiveness. They are extremely not recommended to contain together with each other, and with other fish. The exception can be only catfish, which simply will not intersect with them.

2. Thick-Lipped Gourami (Colisa Labiosa)

Fish thick-lipped gourami is the representative laurinavichene fish came to us from the swamps of Northern India and Burma. In natural conditions, it reaches about 10-11 cm in length. In the aquarium, it grows to a maximum of eight centimeters.Lyabioz, in principle, can be attributed to a variety of macropods, but many scientists and aquarists still distinguish them into a separate species. Fish were first brought to the territory of the former USSR in 1904, and before the Second World war they were very popular among Soviet aquarists. After the end of the war, the fish had to be imported again, since there were practically no individuals left to maintain the population.

Feature of lyabioz, compared with other labyrinthine, manifests itself in the fact that they are absolutely normal can live at normal room temperature. They do not need to buy a heater with a thermostat. Also, they are much more playful compared to many labyrinthine.

3. Dwarf gourami

Fish Laliuseti very beautiful colored fish with a body size of about 5-6 cm came to us from the rivers of India. Despite the fact that they look very similar to macropods (the difference can only be in the shape of the nose), they were made into a separate species.

Fish are very easy to maintain. About 15 liters of water is enough for a couple. For normal development these fish is necessary dense vegetation, low aquarium, bright light, temperatures water not below 20 degrees Celsius. Water parameters, as for most labyrinthine, do not matter. As well as there is no need for additional aeration.

The gourami becomes Mature in 4-5 months. For spawning, a couple is deposited in an aquarium with a volume of at least six liters, while it is necessary to monitor the behavior of the fish. If the male drives the female for a long time, then she is most likely not yet ready to spawn. In this case, the female is better to transplant in order to avoid injuries.

4. Macropod (Macropodus opercularis)

Macropod ordinary. The macropod is native to Central Vietnam and Laos. Bright, beautiful fish. Moreover, the brightness of the color increases when the temperature of the water in the aquarium rises.

Macropods are one of the easiest aquarium fish to keep. They can safely live without filtration and aeration, even in dirty water. Tolerate short-term temperature increases up to 35 degrees. For normal life fish enough 15-20 fringes liter aquarium on couple of.

When breeding, the male and female are deposited in a separate container, preferably planted with plants. If the female is ready to spawn, the male begins to squeeze the eggs out of her. Since it is lighter than water, it rises to the surface, where the male catches it and carries it to a pre-prepared nest of foam. For caviar male follows about ten days carefully and carefully fingering it and shifting from place to place. Female on this time better to remove from aquarium.

5. Kissing gourami (Helostoma temminckii)

Helostoma temminckii is, in some ways, a unique fish not very similar to its labyrinthine relatives. First, most of them do not have a hole in the occipital part of the Gill cover, and more developed gills serve to absorb oxygen. Secondly, they grow to a considerable size-about 15 cm in captivity and up to 30 cm in natural waters. Ah, and in third, from-for what fish and received its name – lips special forms, movement which remind a kiss. Moreover,” kiss ” fish not only of different sexes. Such are the kissing gourami and serve to clarify the relationship between males and spravleniya soft to the female, and as a respectful gesture to the other fish of this species.

Kissing gourami can eat both plant and animal food. In the mouth they have hundreds of small, but sharp teeth that easily grind different foods. In captivity, gourami can be fed both live and dry food. For example, Tetra Betta-food for all labyrinth fish.

The content of the kissing gourami is harder than the other labyrinth. They need a large aquarium, at least a meter long. The aquarium should be well planted with live plants. The water temperature is ideally 24-28 degrees Celsius, the acidity is 6.0-8.0, the hardness is moderate. As a ground it is recommended to use large dark gravel.

6. Honey gourami (Colisa chuna)

Colisa chuna, Trichogaster chipavesma common fish among aquarists. It is native to North-West India and Bangladesh. Honey gourami grows not large, only 3-4 cm. Individual individuals in large aquariums can reach 5-6 cm. These fish are very peaceful and docile, can be safely kept with other non-aggressive species.

The conditions of detention of the honey gourami is similar to macropodum and gourami. They are absolutely not fastidious to the chemical parameters of water, to its purity and the presence of aeration. The only condition for a comfortable stay of fish of this species is densely planted with live plants aquarium. However, they will be able to live without plants, but then it will be necessary to come up with any shelters or houses where the fish can hide if necessary.

7. Pearl gourami (Trichogaster Ieerii)

Trichogaster leerii fish of this subspecies are very mobile, have a beautiful color. During reproduction, the pearl dots on the body of the fish acquire a purple hue and become brighter, as if they sparkle in the rays of the sun. Homeland pearl gourami is India, Indonesia, Thailand. The length of adult fish reaches 11 cm, although in an aquarium usually does not exceed 8-9 cm.

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